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Dynamic equations of aerial robots are complicated due to both the high instability of the platform and the presence of aerodynamic effects, which are not easy to model. Robustness is still a major problem in UAV control. Attaching a small-scale robot manipulator to such an aerial system makes it straightforward to recognize that the dynamic coupling between the modelling terms becomes even more relevant. Representing the dynamic model of the whole system properly is crucial to developing suitable control laws. However, since most robotic arms placed on the UAVs are often small-size manipulators made up of servomotors, it is often impossible to directly control the joint torques. Hence, Fabio Ruggiero developed a method to control the aerial vehicle and the robotic manipulator separately. The latter can be moved through a standard position-based and/or kinematic controller. At the same time, the former has to compensate for the arm's movements and translate towards the desired position in the Cartesian space. Therefore, an estimator of generalized external forces (forces plus moments) acting on the aerial vehicle and based on the mechanical momentum of the system is developed. Other techniques dealing with the interaction with the environment have also been developed.

A literature review about aerial manipulation is published by Fabio Ruggiero:

Proposed solutions: