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A compass-like biped robot can go down a gentle slope without the need of actuation through a proper choice of its dynamic parameter and starting from a suitable initial condition. Addition of control actions is requested to generate additional gaits and robustify the existing one. An interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control, rooted within the port-Hamiltonian framework, is designed in here to generate further gaits with respect to state-of-the-art methodologies, enlarge the basin of attraction of existing gaits, and further robustify the system against controller discretization and parametric uncertainties. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated through numerical simulations and comparison with existing passivity-based techniques.

Energy pumping-and-damping passivity-based control is used instead in here to increase the robustness against uncertainties on the initial conditions of the passive gait exhibited by planar biped robots. The stability analysis is carried out by exploiting the system’s passivity and the hybrid zero dynamics method. Besides, the proposed approach is applied to new gaits that are generated using interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control.

Disturbance reconstruction and robust trajectory tracking control of biped robots with hybrid dynamics in the port-Hamiltonian form is investigated here . A fractional proportional-integral-derivative filter is used to achieve finite-time convergence for position tracking errors. A fractional-order sliding mode controller acts as a centralized controller, ensuring the finite-time stability of the velocity tracking error. The undesired effects of unknown external disturbance and parameter uncertainties are compensated for using estimators. Two disturbance estimators are envisioned. The former is designed using fractional calculus. The latter is an adaptive estimator, and it is constructed using the general dynamic of biped robots. Stability analysis shows that the closed-loop system is finite-time stable in both contact-less and impact phases.